State of the Science: The Relevance of Symptoms in Cardiovascular Disease and Research

Published: August 18, 2022

Black masked male patient and female doctor talking during an exam in the office
  • Symptoms are subjective experiences that may indicate underlying cardiovascular disease or change therein and are of fundamental significance not only to the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and appraisal of response to medical therapy but also directly to patients’ daily lives.
  • Symptoms may be highly variable among patients with similar cardiovascular disorders and may differ based on sex, age, and ethnicity.
  • Monitoring symptoms with reliable and valid measures in clinical practice may enhance clinical care by identifying those who may be at risk for poor outcomes more quickly.