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JAHA Conference Reads
EPI | Lifestyle 2020


To coincide with EPI | Lifestyle 2020, the JAHA Editors have selected 5 articles related to epidemiology, prevention, lifestyle, and cardiometabolic health science for their readers.

JAHA Conference Reads

Selected Articles
 
Novel Self-Report Tool for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment
Hend Mansoor, Ara Jo, V. Madsen Beau De Rochars, Carl J. Pepine, and Arch G. Mainous III

Currently used atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk calculators use objective measures and do not take non-traditional risk factors and family history into account. In this study, Mansoor and colleagues developed and validated a simple risk score using patient-reported information to predict the 10-year risk of incident cardiovascular events using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. The simple risk score utilized the following factors: male sex, age, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and family history of premature myocardial infarction. The predictive performance for the simple risk score was comparable to the guideline-recommended ASCVD risk score and can be easily used in the clinical setting to predict the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events without laboratory measures.

Total Sitting Time and Sitting Pattern in Postmenopausal Women Differ by Hispanic Ethnicity and are Associated With Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers
Ya-Ju Chang, John Bellettiere, Suneeta Godbole, Samaneh Keshavarz, Joseph P. Maestas, Jonathan T. Unkart, Daniel Ervin, Matthew A. Allison, Cheryl L. Rock, Ruth E. Patterson, Marta M. Jankowska, Jacqueline Kerr, Loki Natarajan, and Dorothy D. Sears

Adults 60 years and older in the United States have the highest rates of sedentary behavior. However, ethnic differences in sitting behavior and their relationship to cardiometabolic biomarkers has not been examined. In this study, Chang and colleagues examine data from Hispanic and non-Hispanic postmenopausal women aged 55 and older with overweight/obesity enrolled in 3 different clinical studies. Sitting behavior (total sitting time and mean sitting bout duration) was shorter in Hispanic women compared to non-Hispanic women. Total sitting time was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance, while sitting bout duration was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance. Of note, the association between sitting bout duration and fasting flucose was stronger in Hispanic than in non-Hispanic women.

Risk of Cardiometabolic Disease and All-Cause Mortality in Female Survivors of Domestic Abuse
Joht Singh Chandan, Tom Thomas, Caroline Bradbury-Jones, Julie Taylor, Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay, and Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar

Domestic abuse (DA) against women is a problem of global public health significance. However, the association between domestic abuse and the development of cardiometabolic disease is unclear.  Chandan and colleagues, in this study, examine the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause-mortality in a cohort study in the United Kingdom. Women with an exposure to DA had an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus and a CVD outcome (ischemic heart disease, stroke, or transient ischemic attack) compared to unexposed women. Additionally, women with an exposure to DA had an increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to unexposed women. Further studies should evaluate the biological rationale behind the association between DA exposure and the later development of cardiometabolic disease.

Low-Dose Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Use Patterns and Impact Across Race and Ethnicity in the Southern Community Cohort Study
Rodrigo Fernandez-Jimenez, Thomas J. Wang, Valentin Fuster, and William J. Blot
 

The benefits and harms of low-dose aspirin for primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in adults ages 50-70 are unclear, particularly for racial and ethnic minority populations. In this study, Fernandez-Jimenez and colleagues evaluated low-dose aspirin treatment patterns and associated ischemic cardiac death risk among 65,231 black and white adults in the Southern Community Cohort Study. They found that black participants were 21% less likely to use low-dose aspirin compared with whites, regardless of estimated cardiovascular risk. Over 11 years of followup, low-dose aspirin use was associated with a trend toward lower cardiac death risk in white participants, but this difference was not significant. No mortality benefit was observed for low-dose aspirin use among black participants.

Lifestyle Changes in Relation to Initiation of Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Medication: A Cohort Study
Maarit J. Korhonen , Jaana Pentti, Juha Hartikainen, Jenni Ilomäki, Soko  Setoguchi, Danny Liew, Mika Kivimäki, and Jussi Vahtera
 
While a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes mellitus has been shown to trigger behavioral changes, few studies have evaluated whether initiation of cardioprotective therapies is associated with changes in lifestyle. In a study of 41,225 adults free from CVD at baseline in the Finnish Public Sector study, Korhonen and colleagues evaluated longitudinal changes in lifestyle in relation to starting antihypertensive or lipid-lowering therapy. In people who initiated therapy, they observed increases in BMI, physical activity, and likelihood of becoming obese. However, starting medication was also associated with greater relative declines in alcohol consumption and smoking cessation. These findings highlight the need for more effective measures to support healthy behavior change at the time of initiating cardioprotective therapy.

 


JAHA is the American Heart Association | American Stroke Association's Open Access journal. All articles are available online, free for everyone to read, download, and share.